Alankar, also known as figure of speech or rhetorical device, is a literary technique used to enhance the beauty and impact of language. It adds depth, creativity, and expressiveness to written and spoken communication. Alankar is widely used in various forms of literature, including poetry, prose, drama, and even everyday conversations. In this article, we will explore the concept of alankar in English, its types, examples, and its significance in effective communication.

Types of Alankar

Alankar can be classified into various types based on the literary devices used. Let’s delve into some of the most common types of alankar:

1. Upama Alankar (Simile)

Upama alankar, also known as simile, is a comparison between two different objects or ideas using the words “like” or “as.” It helps in creating vivid imagery and making the reader or listener understand the concept better. For example:

  • “Her smile was as bright as the sun.”
  • “He fought like a lion.”

2. Rupak Alankar (Metaphor)

Rupak alankar, or metaphor, is a figure of speech that compares two unrelated objects or ideas without using “like” or “as.” It establishes a direct association between the two, often by stating that one thing is another. Examples of metaphor include:

  • “Life is a journey.”
  • “The world is a stage.”

3. Anupras Alankar (Alliteration)

Anupras alankar, also known as alliteration, is the repetition of the same sound or letter at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words. It adds rhythm, musicality, and emphasis to the language. Examples of alliteration include:

  • “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.”
  • “She sells seashells by the seashore.”

4. Arthantaranyas Alankar (Metonymy)

Arthantaranyas alankar, or metonymy, is a figure of speech where one word is substituted for another that is closely associated with it. It helps in creating a deeper meaning and association. Examples of metonymy include:

  • “The pen is mightier than the sword.” (Pen refers to written words, while sword refers to military force)
  • “The White House issued a statement.” (White House refers to the President or the administration)

5. Atishayokti Alankar (Hyperbole)

Atishayokti alankar, or hyperbole, is an exaggerated statement or claim not meant to be taken literally. It adds emphasis, intensity, and dramatic effect to the language. Examples of hyperbole include:

  • “I’ve told you a million times.”
  • “I’m so hungry, I could eat a horse.”

Significance of Alankar in Communication

Alankar plays a crucial role in effective communication by adding depth, creativity, and impact to the language. Here are some key reasons why alankar is significant:

1. Enhances Expressiveness

Alankar helps in expressing emotions, ideas, and concepts in a more vivid and engaging manner. It adds color and life to the language, making it more appealing and memorable for the audience.

2. Creates Visual Imagery

By using various types of alankar, writers and speakers can create visual imagery in the minds of the audience. This helps in better understanding and retention of the message being conveyed.

3. Adds Rhythm and Musicality

Alankar, such as alliteration, helps in adding rhythm, musicality, and flow to the language. It makes the communication more pleasing to the ear and enhances the overall experience for the audience.

4. Makes Language Memorable

Alankar makes language more memorable by using creative and unique expressions. It helps in leaving a lasting impression on the audience and ensures that the message is retained for a longer period of time.

Examples of Alankar in Literature

Alankar is extensively used in literature to create impactful and memorable pieces of writing. Here are a few examples of alankar in famous literary works:

1. William Shakespeare’s “Romeo and Juliet”

“But soft! What light through yonder window breaks? It is the east, and Juliet is the sun.”

In this example, Shakespeare uses a metaphor to compare Juliet to the sun, emphasizing her beauty and radiance.

2. Robert Frost’s “The Road Not Taken”

“Two roads diverged in a wood, and I— I took the one less traveled by.”

Here, Frost uses a metaphor to compare life choices to roads, highlighting the importance of taking the less conventional path.

3. Emily Dickinson’s “Hope is the Thing with Feathers”

“Hope is the thing with feathers that perches in the soul.”

Dickinson uses a metaphor to compare hope to a bird, emphasizing its lightness and ability to uplift the spirit.


1. Is alankar only used in poetry?

No, alankar is not limited to poetry. It is used in various forms of literature, including prose, drama, and even everyday conversations. Alankar enhances the beauty and impact of language in any form of communication.

2. Can alankar be used in business communication?

Yes, alankar can be used in business communication to make it more engaging and memorable. However, it is important to use alankar judiciously and consider the context and audience to ensure effective communication.

3. Are there any other types of alankar?

Yes, apart from the types mentioned in this article, there are several other types of alankar, such as Anuprash, Yamlankar, and Vakrokti. Each type of alankar adds a unique flavor to the language and can be explored further for a deeper understanding.

4. Can alankar be used in everyday conversations?

Yes, alankar can be used in everyday conversations to